Abnormal brain activity can be reduced by operant conditioning to improve memory, emotions, and behavior.


Conditions treated include:  Eating Disorders (Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, Binge Eating Disorder and Obesity)Depression, Anxiety, Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), Cognitive dysfunction, Head injury, Chronic pain, Substance use, Addictions, Stroke rehab, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Migraine headaches, Insomnia


C. Laird Birmingham MD



Operant conditioning of the electrical activity of the brain using Low Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA).


Digital EEG recording using NeXus-32 with BioTrace+ software.  Medical grade connectors that lock-in to prevent noise and artifact when touching or pulling them. Artifacts through the movement of cables or other external sources of noise are reduced to a minimum, because of active noise cancellation technology and carbon coated cables. The goal is to prevent artifact, not to delete them afterwards and thereby deleting data at the same time.




The Nexus 32 EEG Cap, designed for the NeXus-32, is a 21 channel cap built according to the “10-20” system. The cap contains 21 sintered electrodes. It is made of stretchy, comfortable material and comes in three sizes: Small (50-54) Medium (54-58 ) Large (58-62).  The rubber suction cups on the inside of the cap keep it in place and prevent unwanted leakage of Electrogel. All cables are carbon coated and use the NEXUS active noise cancellation technology to reduce artifacts to a minimum.

Digital EEG analysis

The digital EEG recorded and saved in Biotrace+ is imported into Neuroguide.


The digital EEG is evaluated using:
  1. Symptom Checklist (SCL)
  2. Computerized QEEG
  3. LORETA Progress Report (LPR)
  4. The EEG in some disorders is worsened or may only be abnormal after exposure to or thinking about a trigger.  This may include Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, Binge Eating Disorder, Phobia, neuropathic pain, PTSD, and anxiety.  I may use Biotrace Event Recorder, LORETA Time Domain Capture, and LORETA Viewer to evaluate recordings following exposure to the trigger in these disorders.
  5. Finally, the patient’s history and their response to LORETA neurofeedback often is the best method to determine the primary cause of their symptoms.  For example, a patient may present with anxiety, be found to have EEG abnormalities consistent with depression, both of which later prove to be secondary to PTSD or head injury based on a combination of all of the factors evaluated and their response to treatment.

LORETA Neurofeedback

LORETA Neurofeedback is done using Neuroguide.  The five methods of evaluation above are used to decide which Brodman areas and frequencies to train.  The Brodman areas and frequencies trained change based on repeated LPR. I specifically train the most abnormal bands separately, train a variety of areas during each session, use a variety of methods of feedback, and only use feedback with no cognitive latency.   Training continues by reducing the degree of abnormality trained, using areas I have personally found to most useful, and training outliers.

Your entire session (including preparation, EEG recording, analysis, and biofeedback) is performed by Dr. Birmingham himself.
The most up-to-date technology.
Dr. Birmingham is a specialist in internal medicine licensed to practice medicine in British Columbia.

To make an appointment contact

Email  carl.birmingham@ubc.ca

Fax 604-737-7090

Phone 604-737-7099

Cell 778-837-9002